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  • Portch, E., Attard-Johnson, J., Estudillo, A.J., Mestry, N., & Bate, S. (in press). "Super-recognisers" and the Legal System. In D. Ross, E. Pica, & J. Pozzulo (Eds.), The Impact of Technology on the Legal System. Routledge, Taylor, and Francis. 


  • Bate, S., Dalyrmple, K., & Bennetts, R. (2022). Face recognition improvements in adults and children with prosopagnosia. Brain Communications, 4, fcac068. 
  • Bennetts, R.J., Gregory, N., Tree, J., Di Bernardi Luft, C., Banissy, M.J., Murray, E., Penton, T., & Bate, S. (2022). Face specific inversion effects provide evidence for two subtypes of developmental prosopagnosia. Neuropsychologia, 174, 108332. 
Research Publications
  • Bennetts, R.J., Humphrey, P., Zielinska, P., & Bate, S. (2022). The effect of face coverings on identification and social judgements is consistent across time and individual differences in face recognition ability. Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 7, 18. 
  • Murray, E., Bennetts, R., Tree, J., & Bate, S. (2022). An update of the Benton Facial Recognition Test. Behavior Research Methods, 54, 2318-2333. 
  • Stantic, M., Brewer, R., Duchaine, B., Banissy, M., Bate, S., Susilo, T., Catmur, C., & Bird, G. (2022). The Oxford Face Matching Task: A novel, non-biased, test of individual differences in face perception. Behavior Research Methods, 54, 158-173. 
  • Stantić, M., Pounder, Z., Bate, S., Susilo, T., Catmur, C., Bird, G. (in press). Individuals with developmental prosopagnosia show independent impairments in face perception, face memory and face matching. Cortex, 157, 266-273. 


  • Abudarham, N., Bate, S., Duchaine, B., & Yovel, G. (2021). Developmental prosopagnosics and super recognizers rely on the same facial features used by individuals with normal face recognition abilities. Neuropsychologia, 160, 107963. 
  • Bate, S., Mestry, N., Atkinson, M., Bennetts, R.J., & Hills, P.J. (2021). Birth weight predicts individual differences in adult face recognition ability. British Journal of Psychology, 112, 628-644. 
  • Bate, S., Portch, E., & Mestry, N. (2021). Guidelines for studying “super-recognizers”. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 74, 2154-2164. 


  • Adams, A., Hills, P., Bennetts, R., & Bate, S. (2020). Coping strategies for developmental prosopagnosia. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 30, 1996-2015. 
  • Bate, S., Adams, A., & Bennetts, R.J. (2020). Guess Who? Facial identity discrimination training improves face memory in typically developing children. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 149, 901-913. 
  • Bate, S., Bennetts, R., Murray, E., & Portch, E. (2020). Enhanced matching of children’s faces in “super-recognisers” but not high-contact controls. iPerception, 11, 1-12. 
  • Bate, S., Mestry, N., & Portch, E. (2020). Resource limits: individual differences between observers in forensic face matching. In M. Bindemann (Ed.), Forensic Face Matching: Research and Practice. Oxford University Press. 
  • Murray, E. & Bate, S. (2020). Diagnosing Developmental Prosopagnosia: Repeated Assessment using the Cambridge Face Memory Test. Royal Society Open Science, 7, 200884. 


  • Bate, S., Adams, A., Bennetts, R., & Line, H. (2019). Developmental prosopagnosia with concurrent topographical disorientation: A case report and virtual reality training programme. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 29, 1290-1312.
  • Bate, S., Bennetts, R., Gregory, N.J., Tree, J., Murray, E., Adams, A., Bobak, A.K., Penton, T., Yang, T., & Banissy, M. (2019). Objective patterns of face recognition deficits in 165 adults with self-reported developmental prosopagnosia. Brain Sciences, 9, 133.
  • Bate, S., Bennetts, R., Hasshim, N., Portch, E., Murray, E., Burns, E., & Dudfield, G. (2019). The limits of super recognition: A cross-race effect in individuals with extraordinary face recognition skills. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 45, 363-377.
  • Bate, S., Bennetts, R., Tree, J.J., Adams, A., & Murray, E. (2019). The domain-specificity of face perception impairments in 40 cases of developmental prosopagnosia. Cognition, 192, .
  • Bate, S., & Dudfield, G. (2019). Subjective assessment for super recognition: An evaluation of self-report methods in civilian and police participants. PeerJ, 7, e6330.
  • Bate, S., Frowd, C., Bennetts, R., Hasshim, N., Portch, E., Murray, E., & Dudfield, G. (2019). The consistency of superior face recognition skills in police officers. Applied Cognitive Psychology.
  • Bate, S., Portch, E., Mestry, N., & Bennetts, R.J. (2019). Redefining super recognition in the real-world: Skilled face or person identity recognisers? British Journal of Psychology, 110, 480-482.
  • Hasshim, N., Bate, S., Downes, M., & Parris, B.A. (2019). Response and semantic Stroop effects in mixed and pure blocks contexts: An ex-Gaussian analysis. Experimental Psychology, 66, 231-238.
  • Murray, E., & Bate, S.. (2019). Self-ratings of face recognition ability are influenced by gender but not prosopagnosia severity. Psychological Assessment, 31, 828-832.


  • Bate, S., Frowd, C., Bennetts, R., Hasshim, N., Murray, E., Bobak, A.K., Wills, H., & Richards, S. (2018). Applied screening tests for the detection of superior face recognition. Cognitive Research: Principals and Implications, 3, 22.
  • Murray, E., Hills, P.J., Bennetts, R.J., & Bate, S. (2018). Identifying hallmark symptoms of developmental prosopagnosia for non-experts. Scientific Reports, 8, 1690.
  • Penton, T., Bate, S., Dalrymple, K.A., Tamm, M., Reed, T., Godovich, S., Kelly, M., Duchaine, B., & Banissy, M.J. (2018). Using high frequency transcranial random noise stimulation to modulate face memory performance in younger and older adults: Lessons learnt from mixed findings. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 12, 863.


  • Bate, S., & Murray, E. (2017). The extremes of face recognition: Prosopagnosia and super recognition. In M. Bindemann & A.M. Megreya (Eds.), Face Processing: Systems, Disorders and Cultural Differences (pp. 203-222). Nova Science Publishers.
  • Bate, S., & Tree, J.J. (2017). The definition and diagnosis of developmental prosopagnosia. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 70, 193-200.
  • Bennetts, R.J., Mole, J.A., & Bate, S. (2017). Super recognition in development: A case study of an adolescent with extraordinary face recognition skills. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 34, 357-376.
  • Bennetts, R.J., Murray, E., Boyce, T., & Bate, S. (2017). Prevalence of face recognition deficits in middle childhood. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 70, 234-258.
  • Bobak, A.K., Bennetts, R.J., Parris, B.A., Jansari, A., & Bate, S. (2017). Corrigendum to “An in-depth cognitive examination of individuals with superior face recognition skills” [Cortex 82 2016 48-62]. Cortex, 89, 175-176.
  • Bobak, A.K., Parris, B.A., Gregory, N.J., Bennetts, R.J., & Bate, S. (2017). Eye-movement strategies in developmental prosopagnosia and “super” face recognition. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 70, 201-217.
  • Burns, E.J., Bennetts, R.J., Bate, S., Wright, V.C., Weidemann, C.T., & Tree, J.J. (2017). Intact word processing in developmental prosopagnosia. Scientific Reports, 7, 1683..


  • Bobak, A.K., Bennetts, R.J., Parris, B.A., Jansari, A., & Bate, S. (2016). An in-depth cognitive examination of individuals with superior face recognition skills. Cortex, 82, 48-62.
  • Bobak, A.K., Dowsett, A., & Bate, S. (2016). Solving the border control problem: Evidence of enhanced face matching in individuals with extraordinary face recognition skills. PLos One, 11, e0148148.
  • Bobak, A.K., Hancock, P.J.B., & Bate, S. (2016). Super-recognizers in action: Evidence from face matching and face memory tasks. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 30, 81-91.
  • Bobak, A., Pampoulov, P., & Bate, S. (2016). Detecting superior face recognition skills in a large sample of young British adults. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1378.


  • Bate, S., & Bennetts, R. (2015). The independence of expression and identity in face-processing: Evidence from neuropsychological case studies. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 770.
  • Bate, S., Bennetts, R., Mole, J.A., Ainge, J.A., Gregory, N.J., Bobak, A.K., & Bussunt, A. (2015). Rehabilitation of Face-Processing Skills in an Adolescent with Prosopagnosia: Evaluation of an Online Perceptual Training Programme. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 25, 733-762.
  • Bate, S., Bennetts, R., Parris, B.A. Bindemann, M., Udale, R., & Bussunt, A. (2015). Oxytocin increases bias, but not accuracy, in face recognition line-ups. Social, Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 10, 1010-1014.
  • Bennetts, R., & Bate, S. (2015). The influence of oxytocin on face-processing skills. In E. Anderson (Ed.), Advances in oxytocin research (pp. 51-65). Nova Science Publishers.
  • Bennetts, R., Butcher, N., Lander, K., Udale, R., & Bate, S. (2015). Movement cues aid face recognition in developmental prosopagnosia. Neuropsychology, 29, 855-860.
  • Gregory, N.J., Lόpez, B., Graham, G., Marshman, P., Bate, S. & Kargas, N. (2015). Reduced gaze following and attention to heads when viewing a "live" social scene. PLos One, 10, e0121792.


  • Bate, S. (2014). Face facts: Understanding prosopagnosia. Psychology Review, 19, 18-21.
  • Bate, S., & Bennetts, R. (2014). The rehabilitation of face recognition impairments: A critical review and future directions. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 491.
  • Bate, S., Cook, S.J., Duchaine, B., Tree, J.J., Burns, E.J., & Hodgson, T.L. (2014). Intranasal inhalation of oxytocin improves face processing in developmental prosopagnosia. Cortex, 50, 55-63 .
  • Parris, B.A., Dienes, Z., Bate, S., & Gothard, S. (2014). Oxytocin impedes the effect of the word blindness posthypnotic suggestion on Stroop task performance. Social, Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 9, 895-899.


  • Bate, S. (2013). Face recognition and its disorders. Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Bate, S., Cook, S.J., Mole, J., & Cole, J. (2013). First report of generalized face processing difficulties in Möbius sequence. PLos One, 8, e62656.


  • Bate, S., & Cook, S.J. (2012). Covert recognition relies on affective valence in developmental prosopagnosia: Evidence from the skin conductance response. Neuropsychology, 26, 670-674.
  • Parris, B.A., Bate, S., Brown, S., & Hodgson, T.L. (2012). Facilitating goal-oriented behaviour in the Stroop task: When executive control is influenced by automatic processing. PLoS One, 7 (10), e46994.


  • Bate, S. (2011). Understanding facial recognition difficulties in children: Prosopagnosia management strategies for parents and professionals. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 18, e17-e18.


  • Bate, S., Haslam, C., Hodgson, T.L., Jansari, A., Gregory, N.J., & Kay, J. (2010). Positive and negative emotion enhances the processing of famous faces in a semantic judgment task. Neuropsychology, 24, 84-89.
  • Bate, S., Kay, J., Code, C.C., Haslam, C., & Hallowel, B. (2010). Eighteen years on: What next for the PALPA? International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 12, 190-202.
  • Bate, S., Parris, B.A., Haslam, C., & Kay, J.M. (2010). Socio-emotional functioning and face recognition ability in the normal population. Personality and Individual Differences, 48, 239-242.


  • Bate, S., Haslam, C., & Hodgson, T.L. (2009). Angry faces are special too: Evidence from the visual scanpath. Neuropsychology, 23, 658-667.
  • Bate, S., Haslam, C., Jansari, A., & Hodgson, T.L. (2009). Covert face recognition relies on affective valence in congenital prosopagnosia. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 26, 391-411.


  • Bate, S., Haslam, C., Tree, J.J., & Hodgson, T.L. (2008). Evidence of an eye movement-based memory effect in congenital prosopagnosia. Cortex, 44, 806-819. View PDF